Norman Geisler
Full name Norman Geisler
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Moderate Calvinism, Christian philosophy
Main interests Philosophy of religion, Christian Apologetics, Moderate Calvinism

Template:BLP sources Norman L. Geisler (born 1932) is a Christian apologist and the co-founder of Southern Evangelical Seminary outside Charlotte, North Carolina, where he formerly taught. He has taught at the university and graduate level for fifty years and has spoken or debated in all fifty states and in twenty-five countries. He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from Jesuit Loyola University.

Geisler is best known for his scholarly contributions to the subjects of Christian apologetics, philosophy, and moderate Calvinism and is the author, coauthor, or editor of over sixty books and hundreds of articles.

Geisler is noted for his philosophical approach to theology. His four volume Systematic Theology offers a blend of philosophy and biblical exegesis. Theologically, Geisler is a conservative evangelical. He has dedicated much effort to the cause of biblical inerrancy, and was a contributor to the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. Together with William Nix, Geisler wrote General Introduction to the Bible, which is still considered to be a textbook for evangelical scholars.[citation needed] Geisler also left the Evangelical Theological Society in 2003, after it did not expel Clark Pinnock, who advocates open theism.[1] He also testified in McLean v. Arkansas, defending creationism.[2]

Geisler is an evangelical scholar, and the author or coauthor of over fifty Christian books defending the Christian faith through logic, evidence, and philosophy. He has also authored many articles and theses on other Christian topics. Dr. Geisler has taught at the university and graduate level for over forty years. Geisler's work Baker Encyclopedia of Christan Apologetics has been well received and is considered a systematic and comprehensive work of Christian apologetics.

Geisler is also known for holding many debates with various scholars, as well as for frequent Christian radio guest appearances. He is considered by many to be a conservative evangelical and signed the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. He holds a B.A. and an Th.B from Wheaton College and William Tyndale College (1960), and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Loyola University (1970). He is former professor of Systematic Theology at Dallas Theological Seminary and professor of Philosophy of Religion at Trinitiy Evangelical Divinity School.

Moderate CalvinismEdit

Geisler claims to be a "moderate Calvinist".[3] Geisler rejects the critical Calvinist tenets of unconditional election, limited atonement, and irresistible grace, yet retains modified versions of total depravity and perseverance of the saints. Yet critics reject the term "moderate Calvinism". James White calls it "merely a modified form of historic Arminianism."[4] Michael Horton notes that historically "moderate Calvinism" referred to Amyraldianism, but "Geisler’s position is much further from Calvinism than Amyraldianism."[5] While Geisler contrasts his position with what he calls "extreme" Calvinism, he does concede that "theologians we classify as extreme Calvinists consider themselves simply ‘Calvinists’ and would probably object to our categorizing them in this manner."[6] Geisler contributed to the book Four Views on Eternal Security (ISBN 0310234395) under the term "moderate Calvinism" but the general editor did not allow Geisler to use the term "extreme Calvinism", only "strong Calvinism".[7]



  • General Introduction to the Bible (Moody Press, 1968; revised and expanded, 1986);
  • Ethics: Alternatives and Issues (Zondervan, 1971);
  • The Christian Ethic of Love (Zondervan, 1973);
  • Philosophy of Religion (Zondervan, 1974; revised 1988);
  • From God to Us (Moody Press, 1974);
  • To Understand the Bible—Look for Jesus (Moody Press, 1975);
  • Christian Apologetics (Baker Book House, 1976);
  • A Popular Survey of the Old Testament (Baker Book House, 1977);
  • The Roots of Evil (Zondervan, 1978);
  • Inerrancy (Zondervan, 1979);
  • Introduction to Philosophy: A Christian Perspective (Baker, 1980);
  • Options in Contemporary Christian Ethics (Baker Book House, 1981);
  • Biblical Errancy: Its Philosophical Roots (Zondervan, 1981);
  • Decide for Yourself: How History Views the Bible (Zondervan, 1982):
  • The Creator in the Courtroom—Scopes II (co-author, Baker, 1982);
  • What Augustine Says (Baker Book House, 1982);
  • Is Man the Measure? (Baker Book House, 1983);
  • Cosmos: Carl Sagan's Religion for the Scientific Mind (Quest Publications, 1983);
  • Religion of the Force (Quest, 1983);
  • To Drink or Not to Drink: A Sober Look at the Problem (Quest, 1984);
  • Perspectives: Understanding and Evaluating Today's World Views (Here's Life Publications, 1984);
  • Video Series: Christianity Under Attack, in 6 parts (Quest, 1985); also in book: Christianity Under Attack (Quest, 1985);
  • False Gods of Our Time (Harvest House, 1985);
  • Reincarnation Sensation (Tyndale, 1986);
  • Origin Science (Baker, 1987);
  • Signs and Wonders (Tyndale, 1988);
  • World's Apart (Baker 1989);
  • Knowing The Truth About Creation (Servant, 1989);
  • The Infiltration of the New Age (Tyndale, 1989);
  • The Battle for the Resurrection (Thomas Nelson, 1989);
  • Apologetics in the New Age (Baker, 1990);
  • Come Let Us Reason: An Introduction to Logical Thinking (Baker, 1990);
  • Gambling: A Bad Bet (Fleming H. Revell, 1990);
  • The Life and Death Debate (Greenwood, 1990);
  • In Defense of the Resurrection (Quest, 1991);
  • Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal (1991);
  • Matters of Life and Death: Calm Answers to Tough Questions about Abortion and Euthanasia (Baker, 1991);
  • Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles (Baker, 1991);
  • When Critics Ask: A Handbook on Bible Difficulties (Victor, 1992);
  • Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles (Baker, 1992);
  • Answering Islam (Baker, 1993);
  • Roman Catholics and Evangelicals (1995);
  • Love Is Always Right (Word, 1996);
  • Creating God in the Image of Man? (Bethany House, 1997);
  • When Cultists Ask (Baker, 1997);
  • The Counterfeit Gospel of Mormonism (Harvest House, 1998);
  • Legislating Morality (Bethany House, 1998);
  • Baker’s Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics (Baker, 1999);
  • Chosen But Free (Bethany, 1999);
  • Unshakable Foundations (Bethany, 2001);
  • Why I Am a Christian (Baker, 2001);
  • Battle for God (Kregel, 2001);
  • Living Loud: Defending Your Faith (Broadman & Holman, 2002);
  • Systematic Theology, Vol. 1 (Introduction – Bible) (Bethany, 2002); Vol. 2 (God - Creation) (Bethany, 2003); Vol. 3 (Sin - Salvation) (Bethany, 2004); Vol. 4 (Church - Last Things) (Bethany, 2005);
  • I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist (Crossway, 2004);
  • Is Your Church Ready? (Zondervan, 2003);
  • Who Made God? (Zondervan, 2003);
  • Bringing Your Faith To Work (Baker, 2005);
  • Correcting The Cults (Baker, 2005);
  • Love Your Neighbor (Crossway, 2007);
  • Conviction Without Compromise (Harvest House, 2008);
  • Is Rome the True Church?: A Consideration of the Roman Catholic Claim (Crossway, 2008).

External linksEdit


  1. Why I Resigned from The Evangelical Theological Society, Norman Geisler, November 20, 2003
  3. Norman Geisler, Chosen but Free, 129.
  4. James White, The Potter's Freedom, 29.
  5. Michael Horton in J. Matthew Pinson (ed.), Four Views on Eternal Security, 113.
  6. Norman Geisler, Chosen but Free, 20.
  7. J. Matthew Pinson (ed.), Four Views on Eternal Security, 63
pt:Norman Geisler